“If the foreign spouse finally receives their green card, does his/her educational background transfer to work for companies in the US?”
In most cases, that has nothing to do with the government, but comes down to the company you’re working for. Generally speaking, if you’ve got a degree from a foreign university, like the University of Frankfurt, or University of Oxford, yes it’s completely up to the company that’s hiring you. In our experience, these degrees are indistinguishable in most cases. In fact, we even hire staff here in our Vegas office who have obtained their degrees overseas.
When it comes to licensing though, that’s different. For example, nurses, lawyers, doctors, etc. These types of careers which require licensing will not transfer so easily. You will need to check with your industry and how to pass the licensing tests or exams here in the US.